Religion. In 1915, over 300 Senegalese came under Australian command, ahead of the taking of Damascus by Australians, before the expected arrival of the famed Lawrence Of Arabia. Articles 21 and 22 of the Constitution adopted in January 2001 guarantee access to education for all children. Being "rasta" for most of these poor people has no religious aspect. Another instrument, the tama, is used in more ethnic groups. The population is heavily weighted toward the young, as are most African populations, with more than two-fifths under 15 years of age. The Senegalese government have tried to control the illegal fishing which is conducted by fishing trawlers, some of which are registered in Russia, Mauritania, Belize and Ukraine. Yoro Dyao was in command of the canton of Foss-Galodjina and was set over Wâlo (Ouâlo) by Louis Faidherbe, where he served as a chief from 1861 to 1914. In the mid-15th century, the Portuguese landed on the Senegal coastline, followed by traders representing other countries, including the French. Fouta is centred on the Sénégal River and extends approximately from Bakel in the east to Dagana in the north. Senegal's economic and political capital is Dakar.  Various European powers — Portugal, the Netherlands, and Great Britain — competed for trade in the area from the 15th century onward. In 1980, President Senghor decided to retire from politics. In Senegal, as Alpha Blondy says, there are rasta pou�, there are crazy rastas, there are rasta cool. They are also found in northern Gambia and southern Mauritania. Others may be wandering holy men who survive on alms, Sufi Murshids ("Guides"), or leaders of religious communities. In Senegal, religion might play a very a significant role to the older generation but serves a very different purpose to different youths in the country. The government allowed up to four hours of voluntary religious education per week in public elementary schools. The Rasta movement, still strongly associated with reggae and Jamaica, has many followers in Senegal. Certain ports also became towns; among these are Kaolack, Foundiougne, and Fatick (on the Sine-Saloum rivers) and Ziguinchor, Sédhiou, and Kolda (on the Casamance River). Senegal culture is reflected in its ethnic roots where 35% of the population are Wolofs, the Pulaar (20%), the Sereres (17%), the Diolas (10%) along with the smaller ethnic groups such as the Mandingues, the Soninkes and the Bassari.  The state was formed as part of the independence of French West Africa from French colonial rule. The principal foreign market is India with 26.7% of exports (as of 1998). On the negative side, Senegal faces deep-seated urban problems of chronic high unemployment, socioeconomic disparity, juvenile delinquency, and drug addiction. Fulani also inhabit this area, although Wolof occupy the False Delta, where they cultivate millet and raise livestock with the help of Fulani shepherds. Several youth opposition movements, including M23 and Y'en a Marre, emerged in June 2011. Around 15 to 20% of men and 2% of women speak and understand French. The spread of formal Quranic school (called daara in Wolof) during the colonial period increased largely through the effort of the Tidjâniyya. Senegal's economy is driven by mining, construction, tourism, fishing and agriculture, which are the main sources of employment in rural areas, despite abundant natural resources in iron, zircon, gas, gold, phosphates, and numerous oil discoveries recently. Roog or Rog is the Supreme God and creator of the Serer religion of the Senegambia region. var d = new Date(); Due to internal political difficulties, the Federation broke up on 20 August, when Senegal and French Sudan (renamed the Republic of Mali) each proclaimed independence. Senegal has a tropical climate with pleasant heat throughout the year with well-defined dry and humid seasons that result from northeast winter winds and southwest summer winds. Currently, Senegal has a quasi-democratic political culture, one of the more successful post-colonial democratic transitions in Africa. , According to the World Refugee Survey 2008, published by the U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants, Senegal has a population of refugees and asylum seekers numbering approximately 23,800 in 2007. The government requires registration of religious and other groups, and provides funding for Islamic and Christian schools and pilgrimages. The government provided direct financial and material assistance to religious groups, primarily to maintain or rehabilitate places of worship or to underwrite special events. The constitution provides for the free practice of religious beliefs and self-governance by religious groups without government interference. Born into a Serer family, himself the son of a Serer High Priest (Saltigue), Thiaw is a specialist in the Serer religion. Léopold Sédar Senghor was Senegal's first president in September 1960. Abdou Diouf was president between 1981 and 2000.  Pulaar is spoken by the Fulas and Toucouleur. Even though Senegal lies within the drought-prone Sahel region, only about 5 percent of the land irrigated, thus Senegal continues to rely on rain-fed agriculture. Like other post-colonial African states, the country includes a wide mix of ethnic and linguistic communities, with the largest being the Wolof, Fula, and Serer people, and the Wolof and French languages acting as lingua francas. The former capital of French West Africa, is also home to banks and other institutions which serve all of Francophone West Africa, and is a hub for shipping and transport in the region.  The northern border is formed by the Senegal River; other rivers include the Gambia and Casamance Rivers. He encouraged broader political participation, reduced government involvement in the economy, and widened Senegal's diplomatic engagements, particularly with other developing nations.  The net primary enrollment rate was 69 percent in 2005.  In addition, 21% of the population is partially fluent in the French language. The towns of Saint-Louis (founded in 1659) and Dakar (1857) are the oldest in Senegal.  According to 2013 survey by the Pew Research Center, 96% of Senegalese believe that homosexuality should not be accepted by society. Sufism follows the basic tenets of Islam but does not follow all of the practices of Sunni or Shiite Muslims. Senegal is divided into five geographic areas, which are inhabited by various ethnic groups. The baobab tree along with other sacred trees figure prominently in the Serer creation narrative. One percent has animist beliefs, particularly in the southeastern region of the country. Many Senegalese youth are reinstating earlier understandings of Islam, in many instances incorporating religion into their lives to a greater extent than that of their parents. As one of the dominate parts of the economy, the agricultural sector of Senegal is highly vulnerable to environmental conditions, such as variations in rainfall and climate change, and changes in world commodity prices. At present Christians in Senegal account for 6% of the population.  Though many standard practices such as the celebration of large Senegalese religious holidays like Tabaski  maintain importance for Senegalese people of all generations, other practices such as daily prayer and abstinence from drinking and drugs take on different roles for Senegalese youth than for their parents. Integrated with the main bodies of the international community, Senegal is also a member of the African Union (AU) and the Community of Sahel-Saharan States. During the 15th century, many European territories started to engage in trade in Senegal. These groups include the Hizbut-Tarqiyyah, and the Association Musulmane des Etudiants d'Afrique Noire (AMEAN). Watered by the river and its tributaries in the dry season, this area is conducive to highly developed agricultural and pastoral use of the soils and vegetation. The medieval history of the Serer people of Senegambia is partly characterised by resisting Islamization from perhaps the 11th century during the Almoravid movement, to the 19th century Marabout movement of Senegambia and continuation of the old Serer paternal dynasties.  Throughout the 1960s and 70s this upturn in religiosity was seen through the building of new mosques, and an increase in attention on Islamic organizations and news publications. "[ citation needed ] He taught and preached religious law and worship "clean and sincere," removed from the traditions that he judged were not conforming to Islam. Peanuts, sugarcane, and cotton are important cash crops, and a wide variety of fruits and vegetables are grown for local and export markets. Each year, not less than two million people make this pilgrimage. There are a small number of members of the Bani Israel tribe in the Senegalese bush that claim Jewish ancestry, though this is disputed. . It lies between latitudes 12° and 17°N, and longitudes 11° and 18°W.
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