Each silica tetrahedron shares 3 of its vertex oxygen atoms with other tetrahedra forming a hexagonal array in two-dimensions. This minimizes the overall bond-valence distortions of the crystallite. Clay minerals are hydrous aluminium phyllosilicates, sometimes with variable amounts of iron, magnesium, alkali metals, alkaline earths, and other cations found on or near some planetary surfaces. Like all phyllosilicates, clay minerals are characterised by two-dimensional sheets of corner-sharing SiO4 tetrahedra and/or AlO4 octahedra. The ion-exchange properties of the clay minerals are extremely important because they determine the physical characteristics and economic use of the minerals. Bonding between the tetrahedral and octahedral sheets requires that the tetrahedral sheet becomes corrugated or twisted, causing ditrigonal distortion to the hexagonal array, and the octahedral sheet is flattened. Well, not always, but at other times there was. The plasticity index (PI), the difference between the two limits, gives a measure for the rheological (flowage) properties of clays. It is generally agreed that the bound water has a structure other than that of liquid water; its structure is most likely that of ice. Depending on the composition of the tetrahedral and octahedral sheets, the layer will have no charge or will have a net negative charge. [further explanation needed], Clay minerals can be incorporated in lime-metakaolin mortars to improve mechanical properties. Smectite also has many industrial applications, but creates great problems in construction because it absorbs and releases water depending on environmental conditions. In each case the interlayer can also contain water. Newer pigeon designs are made from nontoxic ingredients including plaster, calcium bicarbonate, fly ash and heavy spar. Clays can be categorized depending on the way that tetrahedral and octahedral sheets are packaged into layers. Clay minerals are very common in soils, in fine-grained sedimentary rocks such as shale, mudstone, and siltstone and in fine-grained metamorphic slate and phyllite.  Standardization in terminology arose during this period as well with special attention given to similar words that resulted in confusion such as sheet and plane.. Because of these properties, clay is used for making pottery, both utilitarian and decorative, and construction products, such as bricks, walls, and floor tiles. Deposits of clay are commonly found in New Zealand. Vermiculite and vermiculitic minerals preferably and irreversibly adsorb these cations and fix them between the layers. So how do these very different types of clay form? Ordering is described as a random or regular order and is further described by the term reichweite, which is German for range or reach. Given the requirement of water, clay minerals are relatively rare in the Solar System, though they occur extensively on Earth where water has interacted with other minerals and organic matter. In clays, the tetrahedral sheets are always bonded to octahedral sheets formed from small cations, such as aluminum or magnesium, and coordinated by six oxygen atoms. It is created from man-made chemicals in such a way to have the characteristics that artists want in a polymer clay. This was mainly smectite, but with different chemical compositions, and some kaolin here and there.
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